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Main Components of a NETWORK

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Main Components of a NETWORK

Currently, computer networks are a fundamental element in almost all activities carried out in the field, personal, academic and work, most people do not reflect on how these networks operate and are only interested in speed and stability.

As part of the computer learning process, it is necessary to know the basic elements of Software and Hardware that allow data to reach the various devices on a network, as well as learning to manipulate them to make them more efficient, faster and obtain the greatest benefit as computer scientists. to devices connected to the network.

To start the understanding of a network, you can find this video on the internet, the sound is bad but it contains the basic information to understand what a network is.

Once you understand the basics of a network, here are some types of networks and how they can be used.

Types of networks

Networks depending on the use by users can be: shared or exclusive.

Dedicated or exclusive networks.- Are those that, for reasons of security, speed or the absence of another type of network, connect two or more points exclusively. This type of network can be structured in point-to-point networks or multipoint networks.

Point-to-point networks .- Allow direct line connection between terminals and computers. The advantage of this type of connection lies in the high speed of transmission and the security it presents as there is no connection with other users. Its disadvantage would be the very high price of this type of network.

multipoint networks.- Allows the union of several terminals to their corresponding computer sharing a single transmission line. The advantage is the lower cost, although it loses speed and security, this type of network requires amplifiers and signal diffusers or multiplexers that allow dedicated lines to be shared.

Shared networks.- They are those to which a large number of users join, sharing all the transmission needs and even with transmissions of other natures. The most common networks are packet switching and circuit switching.

Packet switching networks.- These are networks in which there are concentration nodes with processors that regulate packet traffic.

Circuit Switched Networks.- They are networks in which the switching centers establish a dedicated circuit between two stations that communicate.

Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) .- They are based on technological developments of digital switching and transmission. The ISDN is a fully digital network for general use capable of integrating a wide range of services such as voice, data, image and text, the ISDN requires the installation of digital exchanges.

Networks according to the services that satisfy users are classified as:

Networks for basic transmission services .- They are characterized by providing service without altering the information they transmit. Dedicated networks, the telephone network, and circuit-switched networks are of this type.

Networks for value-added services.- They are those that, in addition to carrying out the transmission of information, act on it in some way, belong to this type of network: networks that manage messaging, electronic transfer of funds, access to large databases , videotex, teletex, etc.

In order to install and manage a network, it is necessary to understand its components, which are divided into Hardware and Software.

Components of a NETWORK

Server.  It is a computer that, as part of a network, provides services to other computers called clients. A computer application or program that performs some tasks for the benefit of other applications called clients is also often referred to by the word server. Some common services are file services, which allow users to store and access files on a computer, and application services, which perform tasks for the direct benefit of the end user.

Workstations.- When a computer is connected to a network, the former becomes a node of the latter and can be treated as a workstation or client. Workstations can be personal computers, they take care of their own processing tasks, so the bigger and faster the equipment, the better.

Network connection card .- Every computer that connects to a network needs a network interface card that supports a specific network scheme, such as Ethernet, ArcNet or Token Ring. The network cable will be connected to the back of the card, compatibility at the physical and logical level becomes a relevant issue when considering the use of any network card. You have to make sure that the card can work in the desired station, and that there are driver programs that allow the operating system to link it with its protocols and characteristics at a physical level.

Repeaters . It is an electronic device that receives a weak or low level signal and retransmits it at a higher power or level, in such a way that longer distances can be covered without degradation or with a tolerable degradation. The term repeater was created with telegraphy and referred to an electromechanical device used to regenerate telegraph signals. Use of the term has continued in telephony and data transmission.

Bridges .- It is a computer network interconnection device that operates at layer 2 (data link level) of the OSI model. It interconnects two network segments (or divides a network into segments) passing data from one network to another, based on the physical destination address of each packet.

A bridge connects two network segments as a single network using the same networking protocol, the main difference between a bridge and a hub is that the latter passes any frame with any destination to all other connected nodes, while the former it only passes the frames belonging to each segment. This feature improves network performance by reducing useless traffic.

To make the bridging or interconnection of more than 2 networks, switches are used.

Two types of bridge are distinguished:

Local: used to directly link two physically close networks.

Remote or wide area: they are connected in pairs, linking two or more local networks, forming a wide area network, through telephone lines.

It works through a table of MAC addresses detected in each segment to which it is connected. When it detects that a node on one of the segments is trying to transmit data to a node on the other, the bridge copies the frame to the other subnet. By using this automatic learning mechanism, the bridges do not need manual configuration.

Hubs .- is a device that allows centralizing the wiring of a network and being able to expand it. This means that said device receives a signal and repeats this signal by emitting it through its different ports.

It works by repeating each data packet on each of the ports it has, except the one that received the packet, so that all points have access to the data. It is also responsible for sending a shock signal to all ports if it detects a collision, they are the basis for star-type topology networks, there are 3 classes.

Passive.- It does not need electrical energy. It is dedicated to interconnection.

Active.- Needs food. In addition to concentrating the wiring, they regenerate the signal, eliminate noise and amplify the signal

Intelligent.-Also called smart hubs are active hubs that include a microprocessor.

Switch .- It is a digital logic device for the interconnection of computer networks that operates at layer 2 (data link level) of the OSI model. Its function is to interconnect two or more network segments, similar to bridges, passing data from one segment to another according to the destination MAC address of the frames on the network.

Routers .- It is a router, an element that marks the most appropriate path for the transmission of messages in a complete network, it takes the best path to send the data depending on the type of protocol that is loaded, it has a processor that is the most robust , has more processors and much more capacity in their respective memories. Its essential characteristics are

  • It is a smart device
  • process and make decisions
  • Generates routing table (knows if its neighboring routers are up and running).
  • It always takes a Logical direction.
  • It has several interfaces (they are used to interconnect with LAN networks or other Routers).
  • Recognizes the networks that are directly connected
  • It maintains a constant update of the topology (depends on the protocol).
  • LOAD 1/255 the smaller the numerator is the busier.
  • RALY 255/255 the higher the numerator is, the more reliable and safe it is.

Brouters .- It is a computer network interconnection device that works as a bridge (network bridge) and as a router. A router can be configured to act as a bridge for some network traffic, and as a router for the rest.

Firewall .– It is a security element that filters the network traffic that reaches it, with a firewall a computer can be isolated from all the other computers on the network except one or several that are the ones that we are interested in being able to communicate with he.

Cabling .- The most popular types of network cabling are: twisted pair, coaxial cable and fiber optic, in addition connections can be made through radio or microwave, depending on the type of network and its requirements, speed and length. you must consider the type of cable to use

Twisted Pair.- It consists of two twisted copper wires, independently isolated and twisted together. The pair is covered by an outer insulating layer. Among its main advantages we have:

  • It is a well studied technology
  • Does not require special skill for installation
  • Installation is quick and easy
  • The emission of signals to the outside is minimal.
  • It offers some immunity against interference, cross modulation and corrosion.

Coaxial Cable.- It is made up of a copper wire wrapped by a flat braided mesh that functions as ground. Between the conductive wire and the mesh there is a thick layer of insulating material, and the whole assembly is protected by an external cover, it is available in two thicknesses: thick and thin.

The thick cable supports long distances, but is more expensive, the thin cable can be more practical to connect nearby points, the coaxial cable offers the following advantages:

  • Supports broadband and baseband communications.
  • It is useful for various signals, including voice, video, and data.
  • It is a well studied technology.

Fiber optic connection.- This connection is expensive, it allows information to be transmitted at high speed and prevents the intervention of the lines, as the signal is transmitted through light, there are very few possibilities of electrical interference or signal emission, the cable consists of two optical nuclei, one internal and one external, which refract light differently. The fiber is encapsulated in a protective cable, it offers the following advantages:

  • High transmission speed
  • Does not emit electrical or magnetic signals, which results in safety
  • Immunity against interference and cross modulation.
    Greater economy than coaxial cable in some installations.
  • Support greater distances

Software .- : Network software includes programs related to the interconnection of computer equipment, that is, programs necessary for computer networks to work. Among other things, network programs make it possible for computers to communicate, share resources (software and hardware), and help control the security of those resources.

Network operating system .- After meeting all the hardware requirements to install a NETWORK, you need to install a network operating system (Network Operating System, NOS) , which manages and coordinates all the operations of said network. Network operating systems They come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, because each organization that employs them has different needs. Some operating systems perform excellently on small networks, while others specialize in connecting many small networks over fairly large areas.

The services that the NOS performs are:

Support for files.- That is, creating, sharing, storing and recovering files, essential activities in which the NOS specializes, providing a fast and secure method.

Communications .– It refers to everything that is sent through the cable, communication is done when, for example, someone enters the network, copies a file, sends email, or prints.

Equipment support services.- Here all special services such as printing, tape backups, network virus detection, etc. are included.

 

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Tips for the expert: Repair electrical appliances yourself

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In this throw-away economy, it’s always tempting to buy something new as soon as something breaks. Do not! Repairing electrical appliances yourself saves a lot of money, and you also learn something from it. In this article we help you on your way with some tips.

If a device no longer works properly (or does not work at all) and if you cannot quickly find out what the problem is, Google is your best friend. A search with ‘brand name + type number + problem / error code’ in most cases quickly leads to messages from others who have encountered this before.

Almost all appliances sold in the Netherlands are also for sale in Germany with the same type designations. And because the market there is larger, more devices break and there is a greater chance that a user has reported something about this and may have devised or found a solution by now. You can also search for yourself on sites such as selbst.de , gutefrage.net or the electronicwerkstatt.de forum .

Also, don’t forget YouTube. There are now also thousands of videos on YouTube of people showing solutions for common malfunctions of household appliances. Especially with regard to washing machines, dishwashers, dryers and other white goods, problems and solutions are often generic and not tied to a particular brand.

Specialized sites and forums

Highly recommended is iFixit . On this site you will find manuals for repairing thousands of – mainly electronic – devices, including supplies and how difficult the repair is. Separate disassembly descriptions can even be found for devices that are difficult to disassemble. As a user, you are encouraged to describe and share your own repair. And yes, even a guide has been made for how you can do that best.

Certainly with older devices or devices that have been produced in small series, you may not immediately find a description of your problem or solution. In such cases, we recommend that you look for more specialized online places where the real enthusiasts hang out, such as a forum. And if there is no ready-made answer, you can also ask your question here, such as at Question & Answer on our site. A few other recommendations are superuser.com (hardware and software), hififorum.nl (audio equipment), autoweek.nl/forum/ (cars), doenidee.nl/forum / (devices in and around the house), gathering. tweakers.net (electronics + computers) andforum.zoom.nl (cameras).

Find manuals

There is a manual with almost all devices, but this often only helps you with solving small and easy-to-solve malfunctions and problems. Fortunately, there are many sites on the internet where you can also find extensive (technical) manuals, search with the terms ‘service manual’ and ‘repair manual’. This often contains diagrams and describes how to carry out the most common repairs and – perhaps more importantly – what the type numbers are of the parts that you may have to order for this.

Good sites for finding these types of manuals include user manual.com , suche-anleitung.de , manualsdir.eu , devicemanuals.eu , nodevice.com , tradebit.com and eserviceinfo.com . Keep in mind that at some of these sites (service) manuals can only be downloaded for a fee. Incidentally, they are also exchanged via the various forums that have already been discussed. You will probably lose a little more time in that case.

A few additional tips. Have you not been able to find a service manual with parts list and/or part numbers? In most cases, you can also find the number on the part that needs to be replaced, especially for white goods and brown goods. Do you have the correct number but the part is not available? Please contact the correct parts supplier. They often know if there is another part that you can also use.

Parts & Tools

If you know what is wrong with a device, you will in certain cases need new parts and sometimes special tools. The trade in parts is growing enormously and many suppliers now also offer all kinds of how-tos as a service. In some cases, you will receive a credit or discount when the performance of your own repair films or photographs and offers that registration on that particular site.

For inspiration, we list a number of interesting ones: conrad.nl (electronics and tools), fixjeiphone.nl (iPhone and iPad), replacedirect.nl (including computer, household, tools) , partsshop.nl (including kitchen, household, garden) , parts.nl (including white goods and brown goods) and handyman.nl (eg computer, household, bicycle).

Order parts from abroad

In addition to the many sites where you can buy new, it is especially interesting for computer and notebook parts to see what is offered in terms of ‘refurbished’, ‘replacement parts’, and ‘pre-owned’. Sometimes you simply have no other choice or new is much too expensive.

Ebay is a great place to start looking for used parts. If that doesn’t work, aliexpress.com and alibaba.com often offer a solution. Especially in China there is a lively trade in used computer, tablet and smartphone parts. Sellers go to great lengths – albeit in poor English – to help you if you can’t find the right part or alternative yourself. If you have it sent by regular mail, it can take a few weeks from China before you receive a part.

Also pay attention to the shipping costs and any other surcharges. For purchases outside the EU and above 22 euros you pay VAT (21%). If the value is above 150 euros, you will have to pay customs duties to the delivery person. The amount depends on various factors. Before you order something, take a look at the sites of the tax authorities and customs.

With a little daring and a manual or instructions from the internet you can go far, even if you have two left hands. In certain cases, however, it stops because you cannot figure out the problem yourself or because you do not know, for example, which tools or which parts you need.

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Refrigerator repair: Fix common problems yourself

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A refrigerator that no longer works properly can cause problems. There are various food items in it that must remain refrigerated. When the refrigerator no longer works properly, this can cause the food to spoil and everything can therefore be thrown away. The refrigerator should be repaired as soon as possible, but you do not necessarily have to call in a mechanic. You can also solve many problems yourself. Parts.nl tells in this article how you can solve the refrigerator problems yourself.

The refrigerator no longer cools

A very annoying problem that can often have multiple causes. It is important to see what still works well. If the compressor or motor still starts, this means that the thermostat still sends a signal that the engine must start. The coolant is then no longer pumped around due to another cause, which may be due to a leak in the cooling system or a blockage. Unfortunately, this is no longer worth repairing unless it is still under warranty.

If the engine does not start, the refrigerator thermostat is faulty. This can be the thermostat that you set manually or an electronic thermostat that is connected by a wire to a sensor (NTC). The manual thermostat will in many cases have to be replaced and it is often located on the right side of the refrigerator behind the rotary knob. When you take the thermostat out you will probably see the type or serial number. You can use this to order new parts for your refrigerator yourself.

With an electronic thermostat, you need to check the temperature on the display and see if it shows the actual temperature of the refrigerator. If so, then the NTC is faulty. If the temperature differs greatly, the electronics are probably broken. You can also order parts for this online and try to solve the problem yourself.

freezer compartment defrosts

In this case, the refrigerator may be in a room that is too cold. When the temperature in the environment is colder, the engine needs to start less often. You often encounter this in the winter period. So when the engine no longer starts, the freezer compartment is no longer cooled and it defrosts. Therefore, do not place the refrigerator in an environment of 10 degrees or lower.

Water under the fridge

A refrigerator is equipped with an automatic defrosting system, which ensures condensation drainage. Refrigerators condense on the back, causing the water to run down to the gutter. If the gutter is clogged, the water can no longer drain away, so you get water in the refrigerator. To unclog, carefully pierce the hole.

Preventive maintenance prevents problems with the refrigerator

In addition to solving defects, preventive maintenance can also be useful. If the rubbers of the refrigerator are kept clean, they will last longer. This provides a better seal and is better for power consumption. Also regularly defrost the freezer compartment so that ice does not form. As a result, the NTC will not break and can continue to transmit the signal to the motor of the refrigerator.

For example, a refrigerator repair does not have to be complicated and expensive. The costs of a mechanic can easily be saved by carrying out the repair yourself. For this you simply order the refrigerator parts for the refrigerator online and you can quickly get started repairing the refrigerator.

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Managing the waste flow of plastic is important, also with storage bins.

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The ecology of a changing world… With a properly functioning waste stream and new recycling technologies, the amount of recycled plastic can be increased enormously. In the longer term, this is important for online purchases that will be shipped with reusable packaging, such as nestable distribution bins.

Plastic waste can be recycled very well if this old plastic is sorted and does not end up in the residual waste. That is why effective plastics recycling is one of the biggest challenges. Every day huge amounts of plastic waste end up in nature, in landfills, in the oceans and also as microplastics in our food chains. Huge carpets of plastic waste float in the oceans. An example of this is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, which is now three times the size of France and contains 1.8 trillion plastic parts, or 250 for every inhabitant on the planet. It is the largest garbage dump on our planet. This fact underlines once again the importance of establishing well-functioning recycling systems and effective recycling of plastic.

Only 16 percent of plastic waste is recycled

Only 25 percent of plastic waste is recycled. Worldwide it is even less. But according to one study, official recycling rates are relatively high, reaching 45 percent according to the study. However, these figures only refer to deliveries to recycling companies, not the total amount actually recycled. In addition, manufacturers, including storage bins, have until now tended to use virgin plastic granulate for their products instead of recycled material, which is often a mix of colors.

The low price of new plastic and the expensive sorting and reconditioning of used plastic in Europe have led to a large proportion of plastic waste being shipped abroad. According to these data, Germany is the third largest exporter of plastic waste in the world after the US and Japan. However, the main importing countries to date, China and Malaysia, have imposed import bans or extremely limited quantities purchased. The study’s authors describe the planet’s pollution with plastic as one of the greatest environmental crises. “At current and projected growth rates, plastic production will emit 52.5 gigatons of carbon dioxide by 2050.

There is an urgent need for function cycles and new technologies

It is therefore urgent that much more plastic is recycled and reused for new products. To achieve this, the recycling cycles have to work in a real and global way. In addition, new effective processes need to be developed for the recycling of plastic, so that manufacturers are happy to use granulate from recycled plastic.

Diversity of recycled plastic raw materials is increasing

Although the problem of waste still exists, there is a much greater variety of raw materials (ground and recycled materials) on the market today than ten years ago. In the past, companies have only ground their own production waste or customer returns and immediately reused that material. This is then called ground material.

Reclaimed plastics are recycled plastics that are first ground and then melted. Alternatively, the material is sorted, melted, added and reconstituted. Compounding is the addition of aggregates (fillers, additives…) to obtain the desired properties. Depending on the origin, a distinction is made between post-consumer raw materials and post-industrial raw materials.

New processes for plastics recycling

There are already companies that have perfected complicated plastics recycling (mostly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP)) and compounding of post-consumer recyclables so that plastics recycling can be offered according to the demands of the market.

Because the production of plastics does not always have to be based on crude oil. Due to the precise sorting and the optimized separation, degassing and filtration, a particularly high purity of the plastic granules can be achieved during recycling.

Special recipes and processes make it possible to adapt these according to need in terms of fluidity, stability, UV and heat resistance or coloring. Users or manufacturers of plastic products can also apply for an environmental label and thus distinguish themselves positively from the competition. Significant amounts of greenhouse gases are saved in the production of the recycled products and in addition, the upcycling is carried out by using it as a sustainable plastic product. Cheap disposable items are thus converted into high-quality items that replace many disposable products due to their durability.

Research is currently underway into chemical recycling, which will allow plastics for which no recycling solutions currently exist to be recycled, in addition to mechanical recycling. Plastic waste is converted into raw materials or monomers, for example by thermochemical processes, hydrolysis or solvolysis.

The resulting starting material can be used for the production of new plastics. Examples include contaminated plastics, multi-layer food packaging or composite plastics for the automotive and construction industry. The method uses thermochemical processes to convert plastic waste into raw materials (pyrolysis oil). This makes it possible to produce high-quality plastics, for example for packaging.

Upcycling with BITO bins

In the case of reusable use, it is essential to ensure that the recycling cycle really works well, as with BITO reusable storage bins and transport bins. These are made of environmentally friendly recyclable plastic (PP granulate). Moreover, at the end of their life they do not produce unnecessary waste, but are ground and this material is then used to produce new articles. There are many options for realizing reusable and deposit systems with matching plastic containers made of high-quality recycled material. BITO reusable boxes are extremely durable. At BITO, the customer receives a five-year warranty on every storage bin. The MB reusable distribution box has more than 300 cycles. This means that 300 disposable packaging is saved per distribution container. There is a closed raw material cycle for the trays. BITO also uses processed recycled plastics or other recycling systems from around the world on request. This increases the share of plastic waste that is recycled as a raw material. With these BITO storage bins you are upcycling in a particularly environmentally friendly way.

Literature:

1 Only a fraction of plastic waste is recycled, Zeit Online, 6.6.2019

2 Plastic Atlas 2019, Facts and figures about the world of synthetic polymers, Federation for Environment and Nature Conservation Germany (Bund) and Heinrich Böll Foundation, Berlin, 2019

3 ChemCycling: Henkel and Alpla present a special Perwoll bottle, Packaging Journal, October 21, 2019

 

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